Charles Fitzgerald, John Bretoski

FILE - This Aug.30, 1963 black-and-white file photo shows the White House Kremlin "hot line" providing direct communication for emergency use by the Chief of Staff in Washington and Moscow, becaming operational. Air Force Sgt. John Bretoski, left, and Army Lt. Col. Charles Fitzgerald, man the equipment in the Pentagon during a test run. The Pentagon is the U.S. operating terminal for both the land line-transocean circuit and the alternate radio circuit, with a direct relay to the White House. The Washington-Moscow Hot Line, used by U.S. and Russian leaders for frank discussions about crises including the 1967 Six-Day War and the Soviet Union's 1979 invasion of Afghanistan, marks its 50th birthday Thursday with the nations still grappling with competing interests in regional conflicts. (AP Photo, File)